Sapphires are corundum in any color of the rainbow except red. Red corundum is known as Ruby. Sapphires are a 9 on the Mohs hardness scale (VERY HARD) and are also the birthstone for the month of September. Madagascar is a world leader in sapphire production, specifically its deposits in and around the city of Ilakaka, but Sapphires are also found in the USA, Myanmar, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Australia, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tanzania, Kenya and China.
Lucky you if this magnificent gemstone is your Birthstone. You can choose from an amazing array of colors. Don't care for clear stones? In this incredible family, you have the choice of a star sapphire. A star sapphire is a type of sapphire that exhibits a star-like phenomenon known as aster-ism. Star sapphires contain intersecting needle-like inclusions (often the mineral rutile, a mineral composed primarily of titanium oxide) that cause the appearance of a six-rayed "star"-shaped pattern when viewed with a single overhead light source. Just pick your favorite one and that can be your special Sapphire birthstone. Blue became the "official" color for Sapphires when is was promoted by the Jewelers of America, the American national association of Jewelers, in 1912. Now you know that you can choose the one that appeals to you!
Personally I love the Padparadscha an unbelievable brilliant pink/orange. The name derives from the Sinhalese word for lotus blossom. Along with rubies, they are the only type of corundum to be given their own name instead of being called a particular colored sapphire.
I hope this information has helped you to better understand Sapphire and some of it many facets!